June 29, 2014

Coffee Roasting with My Perforated Shallow Pot, Continued/穴あきの浅鍋によるコーヒー焙煎、続き

13 minutes passed. I finally removed the aluminum foil from the pot. I tried to post a video, but failed, probably it was too long.
I uploaded this video to YouTube.

13 minutes and a half passed.
14 minutes passed. You need to decide when to stop roasting by carefully checking the roast level. I ended up roasting for a total of 15 minutes.
After the end of roasting, you need to cool the beans immediately to prevent further roasting.

Look at all the chaff.
Now, you know why I need a vacuum cleaner.

The end product:
I thought I successfully roasted them to my preferred level (weight loss of about 14-15%).

Unfortunately, I was wrong.
313 g - 1 g (weight of the I-wrap bag) = 312 g. Thus, 13.3% weight loss.
313 g - 1 g(アイラップの重さ) = 312 g。よって、重量減は13.3%。

Anyway, a moderate success, I would say.

Coffee Roasting with My Perforated Shallow Pot/穴あきの浅鍋によるコーヒー焙煎

Here is a summary of what I have written about coffee roasting with my perforated shallow pot, plus some additional information.

For information about this and other roasters, check out this post.

Coffee roasting is a two-phase process:
1. Drying phase, where you must dry the coffee beans sufficiently.
The drying phase should at least be 9 minutes long. It's usually 10-12 minutes long.
The weight loss is about 7% at the end of the drying phase.
2. Chemical reaction phase, where you must cause a large number of chemical reactions by increasing the amount of heat applied to the coffee beans.

My shallow pot roaster is very light, 325 g, which is an important feature because you have to keep shaking it for up to 16 minutes.
私の浅鍋焙煎機はとても軽く、325 gです。16分程度まで振り続ける必要があるので、とても重要な特徴です。
Because it's light, it has a low heat capacity, so it does not require pre-heating and and is useful in preventing coffee beans from being over-roasted. If you suspect your coffee beans are over-roasted, simply remove the pot from the stove, turn down the heat, and start roasting again.

You will need:
1 or 2 metal sieves, a cooling device (or just a fan), leather gloves, a timer, a vacuum cleaner (option).

You will also need a portable gas stove, a gas cartridge, a spare cartridge.
A spare cartridge is required, not optional.

Currently, I make it a point to roast 360 g of green coffee beans at a time.
現在、私は生豆(きまめ、なままめ)を一度に360 g焙煎することにしています。
Cover the pot almost entirely with some aluminum foil.
Start with medium heat, provided that your stove has a heating power of about 2,600 kW/h.
CORRECTION: 3.0 kW (2,600 kcal/h)
コンロの火力が2,600 kW/h程度とすると、中火で始めます。
訂正: 3.0 kW (2,600 kcal/h)
Start roasting. Press the start button of the timer. Start shaking the pot.
(I forgot to press the start bottom, and pressed it 8 seconds after I turned on the gas.)

Two minutes passed. At this point, no chaff should come off the beans. If it does, remove the pot from the stove immediately, turn down the heat, and start roasting again.

3 minutes passed. It's hard to see from the video, but chaff started to come off the beans and fall down on the stove.
9 minutes passed. If first crack occurs at this point, remove the pot from the pot immediately, turn down the heat, and start roasting again.

In this particular case, first crack started at around 10:30. Still too early, but I continued to roast without turning down the heat.

11 minutes passed.
Keep roasting while listening to the sound carefully.
I forgot when I turned up the heat to high... Probably 12 minutes after the start of roasting.

To be continued.

June 23, 2014

Some More Details of the Matsuya Method/松屋式の詳細

Here are some more details of the Matsuya method.

First, cone-shaped paper filters:
Shown above are Kono's 2-cup filter (top left), Hario's 4-cup filter (top right), and Matsuya's genuine 5-cup filter (bottom).
Preferably, use Matsuya's genuine paper filters. That being said, I have never had any troubles with Kono's or Hario's.

Compare the sizes:
Matsuya's filter is sewn on one end with cotton thread.
1.4 g.

1.2 g.

0.9 g.

Second, Matsuya's wire-frame drippers for 2 cups (top) and 5 cups (bottom):
I have already talked about the dimensions of the 5-cup dripper here.
I have also talked about the difference between the drippers available from Matsuya and those available from Flavor Coffee here.
If you can't get one of those unique drippers, you need to make one yourself or use a Kono or Hario conic dripper instead.

Third, the drip pot. Sorry, no photo. I have talked about the drip pot here.
It is important to note that you need to be able to pour water at three different flow rates:
Low: Approx. 30 ml per 30 seconds, used for blooming
Medium: Approx. 100 ml per 30 seconds, used for brewing
High: Approx. 80-100 ml per 10 seconds, used to increase the water level quickly before brewing
低: 30秒で約30 ml。ブルームに使う。
中: 30秒で約100 ml。抽出に使う。
高: 10秒で約80~100 ml。抽出前にお湯のレベルを早く上げるのに使う。

Directions for making 600 ml of coffee with 50 g of coffee beans
コーヒー600 mlをコーヒー豆50 gを使って淹れる方法

1. Boil about 700 ml of water in a kettle.
1. やかんでお湯を700 ml程度沸かします。

2. Treat the paper filter.
2. ペーパーフィルターを処理します。

a. Fold the sewn end of the filter.
a. フィルターの縫ってある端を折ります。
b. Open the filter. Match the two sides together. Fold the right end from the bottom up to the middle, not all the way to the top. DO the same on the left end.
b. フィルタを開きます。二辺を合わせます。右端を下から真ん中まで折ります(上まで折らない)。左端も同様にする。
c. Place the filter in the dripper.
c. ドリッパーに置きます。
3. Measure out 50 g of coffee beans. The coffee-to-water ratio is 1:12.
3. コーヒー豆を50 g測ります。豆とお湯の割合は1:12です。
4. Grind the bean coarsely.
4. 粗挽きにします。
But exactly how coarse? The grind level is closely associated with the brew time. The grind level must be such that you can brew 300 ml of very strong coffee for 1.5 minutes while keeping just enough water to barely cover the coffee grounds (keeping the "hitahita" state). You will need to make several experiments to attain the proper grind level with your coffee grinder.

Note: Prewetting the paper filter is optional. This is not only true of the Matsuya method. In Japan, prewetting the paper filter is NOT considered important. This was practiced by some in the days when paper filters were of low quality.
注: ペーパーフィルタを濡らすのはオプション(省略可)です。これは松屋式だけでなく、日本では、ペーパーフィルタを濡らすことは重要なことと考えられていません。ペーパーフィルタの質が悪い時代に実践している人はいました。

5. Put the ground coffee in the filter, and dig a hole, with the back of a spoon. The fresher the coffee, the deeper the hole should be.
5. 挽いた豆をフィルタに入れ、スプーンの裏を使って、穴を掘ります。コーヒー豆が新鮮なほど、穴を深く掘ります。  
6. Bloom the coffee grounds:
Transfer the 100C/212F water from the kettle to the drip pot. The water in the drip pot will be 95C/203F.
Pour water at the center of the coffee grounds. The flow rate must be low. In 8-10 seconds, coffee starts to come down the filter. Then, start moving the drip pot in a circular motion going outward. Generally, move the pot three times. The total bloom time is about 35-40 seconds, and about 60 ml of water is used, of which 45 ml remains in the coffee grounds.
6. コーヒーの粉を膨らませます(ブルーム):
お湯をコーヒーの粉の真ん中に注します。流量は低くします。8~10秒でコーヒーがフィルタから出てきます。そうなったら、ドリップポットを外側に向かって円を描くように回し始めます。一般的にポットは3回、回します。ブルームに要する時間は全部で約35~40秒で、約60 mlのお湯を使います。そのうち、45 mlがコーヒーの粉に残ります。

7. Place a 10 cm diameter dome-shaped lid on the filter.
7. 直径10 cmのドーム型の蓋をフィルタに載せます。
Sorry, I haven't talked about the dome-shaped lid. Any lightweight lid of an appropriate size will do. I can't find a proper one, so I use a sheet of plastic wrap.

8. Let the coffee grounds sit for 3 minutes. This step is called "murashi" (lit. steaming). and is intended to release all gas (carbon dioxide) from coffee grounds.
8. コーヒーの粉を3分間置いておきます。このステップは蒸らしと言い、コーヒーの粉からガス(炭酸ガス)をすべて抜くことを目的とします。
(This time, 50 g, 35 seconds. I sometimes use up to 70 g of water for up to 40 seconds, depending on the case.)
(今回は、50 g、35秒。場合によって40秒、70 gまでお湯を使うことがあります。)
9. The water in the drip pot is now at 90C/194F. Pour water, starting halfway between the center and the edge of the coffee grounds. The flow rate must be high to raise the water level up to the level of the coffee grounds quickly. Besides, you need to move the drip pot faster so as not to agitate the coffee grounds. Keep pouring water there for 8-10 seconds, until coffee comes down from the filter. Then, move the drip pot to the center, and start moving it in a circular motion going outward. The flow rate must be medium. As a rough guide, move the drip pot at and around the center of the coffee grounds five times and around the edge one time. You don't necessarily have to follow this pattern, and the most important thing to remember is to keep just enough water to barely cover the coffee grounds (keep the hitahita state).
Note that the temperature of the coffee grounds will be 5-10C lower than the water temperature. Thus, the extraction is performed at around 90 - (5 to 10) = 85 to 80C (185 to 176F). You may want to make sure that the coffee grounds do not exceed 85C/185F, by sticking a thermometer into the coffee grounds.
9. ドリップポットの中のお湯は90C/194Fになっています。コーヒーの粉の真ん中と端の中間からお湯を注し始めます。流量は、お湯のレベルをコーヒーの粉のレベルにまで早く上げるため、多くします。さらに、コーヒーの粉を動かさないようドリップポットを早く回す必要があります。8~10秒間、コーヒーがフィルターから落ちてくるまで、そこでお湯を注し続けます。それから、ドリップポットを真ん中に移動させ、外に向かって円を描くように動かし始めます。流量は中程度にします。目安としては、ドリップポットをコーヒーの粉の中心とその周りで5回、縁の周りで1回動かします。必ずしもこれに従う必要はないですが、重要なことは、コーヒーの粉をお湯でひたひたな状態を保つことです。
コーヒーの粉の温度はお湯の温度より5~10C低くなります。従って、抽出は90 - (5~10) = 85~80C (185~176F)で行われます。コーヒーの粉に温度計を刺して、コーヒーの粉が85C/185F以上にならないようにするといいかも知れません。

Coffee grounds, after 3-minute "murashi"
10. Stop brewing when you obtain 300 ml of very strong coffee. Stop pouring water at the center of the coffee grounds. The total brew time should be around one and a half minutes, but when to stop brewing largely depends on your preferences. If you want to add some of the astringent, bitter, and other unpleasant flavors to your coffee, simply extend the brew time. As a rule of thumb, you may want to extend the brew time for dark roasts and shorten it for light roasts, but again, that largely depends on your preferences.
The coffee in the server/carafe is around 65C/149F.
10. とても濃いコーヒーが300 mlできたら、抽出を止めます。コーヒーの粉の真ん中でお湯を注すのを止めて下さい。全抽出時間は1分半ですが、いつ抽出を止めるかは、それぞれの好みの問題です。渋み、苦みなど嫌味を少し入れたいと思ったら、抽出時間を延ばして下さい。大まかに言って、深煎りの場合は、抽出時間を延ばしたいと思うでしょうし、浅煎りの場合は短くしたいと思うでしょうが、ともかく繰り返しますが、個人の好みの問題です。

11. Dilute the very strong coffee with an equal amount of water to obtain 600 ml of very clear coffee.
The coffee in the server/carafe will be around 75C/167F.
Or, you may leave the coffee undiluted and add water later, when you want to have coffee.
11. とても濃いコーヒーを同量のお湯で薄め、とてもクリアーなコーヒーを600 ml得ます。

According to Master Nakagawa, the coffee brewed with the Matsuya method won't get cloudy for 2-3 weeks (at room temperature). I have never confirmed that, but I can say that the coffee brewed and diluted with the Matsuya method can keep for at least one day at room temperature. 

Sorry, I can't take a photo in such a way to tell exactly how clear the coffee is.

Coffee grounds:

Dripper and filter:

You will now be able to better understand the Matsuya method by watching one of Master Nakagawa's videos even if you don't understand Japanese.

Brewing coffee with the Matsuya method is making dashi from coffee beans. To do so, you have to coarsely grind coffee beans, release all gas from the coffee grounds in the 3-minute "murashi", and brew coffee by keeping just enough water to barely cover the coffee grounds (keeping the "hitahita" state). You also need to make sure you don't agitate the coffee grounds. By not agitating coffee grounds, you will clearly see what agitation does to the coffee grounds.

June 19, 2014

YASUDA YOGURT, Chickpeas, etc/安田ヨーグルト、ひよこ豆など

The other day, I went to Nagaoka by train. The primary purpose was to visit my son's high school for a parent meeting, but the secondary purpose was much more important. After I left the school, I went to a book store and a 100-yen shop. Then, I went to the station building, where you can find an imported food shop, an ice cream shop run by YASUDA YOGURT, and a supermarket among others.

At the YASUDA YOGURT shop, I ordered one raspberry-flavored frozen yogurt (220 yen). I had it in the food court nearby.
Good enough, but I thought I should have ordered soft-serve ice cream.

The young female sales clerk was very generous. She gave me this:
Cream caramel candy. Very tasty!

Here are the food items that I bought at the imported food store.

Glad that I found chickpeas!

Today, I cooked all the chickpeas (300 g).
今日は、ひよこ豆を全部(300 g)茹でました。

I first soaked them in cold water for more than six hours.
Then, I boiled them and simmered for 13 minutes. (I was planning to simmer them for 20-30 minutes according to one recipe.)
7 minutes later, I drained them.  I had some and found they were very, very good!
I think we will finish them off as a snack.

I think I'll ask my son to get some more bags for me so I can use them for different dishes!

June 18, 2014

Usu Yaki/薄焼き

Usu yaki is a specialty of Shinshu (Nagano). My father, who comes from Shinshu, used to make usu yaki sometimes when we lived in Tokyo. Today, I made usu yaki, using flour, miso, and nira (Chinese chive). Usu yaki made with nira can be called nira yaki, whereas usu yaki made with negi can be called negi yaki.
Usu < Usui = Thin
Yaki < Yaku = To fry, to grill
Sorry, I don't have a recipe to share. I simply mixed some flour with water, and added some more water until the right texture (similar to that of pancake batter). I added nira and miso.

Some recipes like this one call for eggs and/or sugar. If I remember correctly, my father did not add either.

I think that flour, miso, and nira (or negi) are the only required ingredients, as well as some oil for pan-frying. Slightly scorched miso adds a wonderful flavor to this simple "pancake".

June 16, 2014


On Father's Day, my wife made o-sekihan for her father, using 1 kg of mochi gome (mochi rice; glutinous rice) and azuki beans. She transferred the o-sekihan to a juubako, and the rest was eaten by my family for supper.
父の日に、妻が実父のために、もち米を1 kgと小豆でお赤飯を作りました。重箱に詰めて、残りは家族で夕飯に食べました。
O-sekihan is usually eaten with toasted sesame seeds and salt, but I had it plain. Later, I had it with Magic Furikake.

O-sekihan is a polite way of saying sekihan. The same goes for o-bento, o-chawan (rice bowl), o-kome (rice), and so on. In some cases, the polite connotation of "o" is almost lost, as in o-cha and o-wan. That is, it is more common to say o-cha (tea) and o-wan (soup bowl) than cha and wan. In other cases, "o" can mean "your", as in o-kuruma (your car) and o-tegami (your letter).

June 15, 2014

Buri Teriyaki and Buri Kama Shio-Yaki (Salt Grilled Yellowtail Collar)/ぶりの照り焼きとぶりのかまの塩焼き

When I went shopping yesterday, I hoped I could get some aji (horse mackerel) cheap so I could try out my ajikiri. Instead, I got some nice buri slices cheap. I bought two packs (six slices in total).
I also bought one buri kama (collar).
Note that both buri slices and collar were from Sanriki, heavily damaged by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami.

The buri kama was about 220 g in weight, so I sprinkled 1 tsp (4 g) or 2% salt and rubbed well. I let it sit for more than 10 minutes.
ぶりかまは重さが約220 gだったので、塩を小さじ1杯(4 g)、つまり2%、振り、よくもみました。10分以上、置いておきました。
I wiped off the salt and blood with paper towel, and grilled it in the toaster oven for 10 minutes in total.

Before grilling
5 minutes passed.
Then, I closed the aluminum foil to prevent the skin from burning.
Another five minutes passed. Almost done.
I later reheated it just before eating.

I made buri teriyaki with the slices. I place the slices in the frying pan, with the skin side down. I turned on the gas, set it to low, and covered the pan with the lid.
I used this junmai(!) hon(!) mirin, which I have mentioned before.
I combined 45 ml each of hon mirin and soy sauce, plus 1 tsp sugar for additional sweetness.
本みりんと醤油を45 mlづつ合わせ、甘みを少し足すため砂糖を小さじ1杯入れました。

2-3 minutes later, I lifted the lid, turned the slices over gently, using a plastic spatula, so as not to disintegrate them,

and added the mirin and soy sauce mixture. Simmered for about 2 min. until done.
There are other buri teriyaki recipes out there, some of which are very complicated (salting the slices before pan-frying, dusting with flour before pan-frying, pan-frying with oil, etc.) I prefer a simple recipe like the one I described above.

Note that in Japanese cuisine, teriyaki is frying or grilling with a sauce (tare) of soy sauce and mirin and/or sugar (and sake). Usually, the sauce does not contain spicy or pungent ingredients like garlic.